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De Niqab / Jelbab / Hijab bi tariqat ahlul Sunna wal Jamah [/SIZE]
[SIZE=5][COLOR="#FF0000"]Qur’ānic and Narrative Evidence[/COLOR][/SIZE]
[SIZE=4]The First Āyah 33:53
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَدْخُلُوا بُيُوتَ النَّبِيِّ إِلَّا أَن
يُؤْذَنَ لَـكُمْ إِلَى طَعَامٍ غَيْرَ نَاظِرِينَ إِنَاهُ وَلَـكِنْ إِذَا
دُعِيتُمْ فَادْخُلُوا فَإِذَا طَعِمْتُمْ فَانتَشِرُوا وَلَا مُسْتَأْنِسِينَ
لِحَدِيثٍ إِنَّ ذَلِكُمْ كَانَ يُؤْذِي النَّبِيَّ فَيَسْتَحْيِي مِنكُمْ وَالله
لَا يَسْتَحْيِي مِنَ الْـحَقِّ وَإِذَا سَأَلْتُمُوهُنَّ مَتَاعًا فَاسْأَلُوهُنَّ
مِن وَرَاءِ حِجَابٍ ذَلِكُمْ أَطْهَرُ لِقُلُوبِكُمْ وَقُلُوبِهِنَّ وَمَا كَانَ
لَـكُمْ أَن تُؤْذُوا رَسُولَ الله وَلَا أَن تَنكِحُوا أَزْوَاجَهُ مِن بَعْدِهِ
أَبَدًا إِنَّ ذَلِكُمْ كَانَ عِندَ الله عَظِيمًا[/SIZE]
“O you who believe! Enter not the Prophet’s houses, except when leave is given to you for a meal, (and then) not (so early as) to wait for its preparation. But when you are invited, enter, and when you have taken your meal, disperse, without sitting for a talk. Verily, such (behaviour) annoys the Prophet, and he is shy of (asking) you (to go), but Allâh is not shy of (telling you) the truth. And when you ask for anything you want, ask them from behind a Hijāb, that is purer for your hearts and for their hearts. And it is not (right) for you that you should annoy Allâh’s Messenger, nor that you should ever marry his wives after him (his death). Verily! With Allâh that shall be an enormity. (Al-Ahzāb 33:53)
The specific reason this āyah was revealed is narrated by Anas ibn Maalik, who was the servant of the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa ‘alaa Aalihi wa sallam).
“When the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa ‘alaa Aalihi wa sallam) married Zaynab bint Jahsh (radhiyallahu ‘anhaa), he invited the people to eat, then they sat talking. When he wanted to get up, they did not get up. When he saw that, he got up anyway, and some of them got up, but three people remained sitting. The Prophet wanted to go in, but these people were sitting, then they got up and went away. I came and told the Prophet that they had left, then he came and entered. I wanted to follow him, but he put the screen between me and him. Then Allah revealed the āyah…” [Sahīh Al Bukhāri]
Some say that this āyah pertains only to the wives of the Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa ‘alaa Aalihi wa sallam). Others say that it is ‘Aam (general) in meaning and thus pertains to all believing women. The view that it is general seems to be sounder as you will come to know, Insha’Allah.
The following are the reasons why the proper opinion is that the Hijāb is for all the believing women, not just for the mothers of the believers.
Firstly, Amongst the Usool (principles) of Islām is,
[SIZE=4]العبرة بعموم اللفظ لا بخصوص السبب[/SIZE]
“The lesson is with the generality of the statement, not with the specific reason (for revelation).”
The point being, this āyah was specifically revealed for the Nabi (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa ‘alaa Aalihi wa sallam) and his wives. However, there is generality within the words of this āyah that makes the ruling of Hijāb a universal ruling.
Allah states the reason why the Hijāb must be between the wives of the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa ‘alaa Aalihi wa sallam) and the men. He says,
[SIZE=4]وَإِذَا سَأَلْتُمُوهُنَّ مَتَاعًا فَاسْأَلُوهُنَّ مِن وَرَاءِ حِجَابٍ ذَلِكُمْ
أَطْهَرُ لِقُلُوبِكُمْ وَقُلُوبِهِنَّ[/SIZE]
“And when you ask for anything you want, ask them from behind a Hijāb. That is purer for your hearts and for their hearts…”
The fact of the matter is, universally, both men and women have this flaw that must be warded off. The cure for this flaw is the purification through Hijāb. So the flaw within the heart is universal, thus the ruling must be universal. As Allah says, “that is purer for your hearts [kum at the end of the Qulūb (hearts) denotes plural for all males] and for their hearts (Hinna at the end of Qulūb denotes the plural form for females).”
Due to the fact that this problem of the heart (lust or attraction) is general, then the ruling also must be general. Those who restrict this āyah would be saying that this illness (or impurity) is only specific to the wives of the Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa ‘alaa Aalihi wa sallam) and the Sahābah.
That is a ridiculous claim, or else Allah would not have revealed the many other āyat we are going to discuss pertaining to Hijāb. The ruling of this āyah being universal was mentioned by Imām ibn Jarīr At-Tabari when he said after explaining,
‘…and when you ask for anything you want, ask them from behind a Hijāb ‘,
He said explaining, “and if you ask the wives of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa ‘alaa Aalihi wa sallam), and the Believing women who are not your wives, for something…” [See Tafsir At-Tabari regarding this āyah.]
Imām Muhammad Al-Amīn Ash Shinqītī also stated that this was a general ruling in his Adhwaa’ ul Bayān, and he stated under this āyah, “So know, that Hijāb is wājib (obligatory) by the proofs of the Qur’ān upon All Women!”
The Mufassir (explainer of Qur’ān) Abu Bakr Al Jassas also said, “And the meaning is ‘Aām (general)…” [See Ahkāmul Qur'ān by Abu Bakr Al Jassās.]
The Mufassir Al Faqīh (jurist) Al Imām Al Qurtubī in his Tafsīr also says “…and included in that (the rulings in this verse) is all women…” And then he goes on to say that ‘from the principles of the Sharee’ah is that all of the woman is ‘awrah, her body and voice, as has been mentioned before. So it is not permissible to unveil that except for a need such as testifying (or witnessing in court etc.), or an ailment that is affecting her body…” [See Jāmi' Ahkāmul Qur'ān under this āyah.]
Secondly, a supporting proof that proves that the salaf (the generations of the past i.e. Sahabah etc.) understood this āyah to be universal is a narration from Umm Salamah that follows.
Umm Salamah (Radhiya Allahu ‘Anhā) said,
[SIZE=4]لما انقضت عدتي من أبي سلمة أتاني رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فكلمني , بينه
وبيني حجاب , فخطب إلي نفسيتت
“When my ‘Iddah (This type of ‘iddah refers to the 4 months and 10 days of mourning that Allah has legislated for a woman after her husband passes away) ended from [the death of] Abi Salamah, Rasūlullah (Sallalllahu ‘Alayhi wa Sallam) came and spoke to me and between him and I was a Hijāb, and so he proposed to me…”
This hadeeth is reported in the Tabaqāt of Ibn Sa’ad beneath the chapter of Umm Salamah. It is also found in Siyār Al-’Allām An-Nubalā’ Vol. 2 204-205 and Bidayah wan-Nihayah.
All of its men are the men of the two Sahīhs.
This narration supports the argument that this āyah is general due to the fact that Umm Salamah was not one of the wives of the Nabi (Sallalllahu ‘Alayhi wa Sallam), yet she still was using the Hijāb between her and the Nabi (Sallalllahu ‘Alayhi wa Sallam).
Some may argue that the Hijāb is a screen or barrier that the woman puts between her and the one who is asking. We agree that placing a screen between the man and the woman is part of Hijāb, however it is not the only variable of Hijāb to be applied. So the woman puts a barrier between her and the one asking, yet when she comes out of her home she has no barrier? This approach does not make any logical sense. How is it that Allah would legislate a barrier that conceals the woman from the man in the home, but when leaving the home, which is a greater fitnah as was stated in the hadīth, “when she leaves her home Shaytān looks up to her”, there is no barrier? Both men and women still have this disease when she is outside of her home. Thus, Allah has prescribed the Hijāb to purify the hearts of the people by putting a barrier between the believers and fitnah (trials etc.).
Another proof that this is not only for the wives of the Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa ‘alaa Aalihi wa sallam) is due to the fact that there is absolutely no proof to restrict it to be specific, whereas the āyah itself uses general meaning when discussing the Hijāb.
The Second Āyah 33:32-33
يَا نِسَاءَ النَّبِيِّ لَسْتُنَّ كَأَحَدٍ مِّنَ النِّسَاءِ إِنِ اتَّقَيْتُنَّ
فَلَا تَخْضَعْنَ بِالْقَوْلِ فَيَطْمَعَ الَّذِي فِي قَلْبِهِ مَرَضٌ وَقُلْنَ
قَوْلًا مَّعْرُوفًا x وَقَرْنَ فِي بُيُوتِكُنَّ وَلَا تَبَرَّجْنَ تَبَرُّجَ
الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ الْأُولَى وَأَقِمْنَ الصَّلَاةَ وَآتِـينَ الزَّكَاةَ وَأَطِعْنَ
الله وَرَسُولَهُ إِنَّـمَا يُرِيدُ الله لِيُذْهِبَ عَنكُمُ الرِّجْسَ أَهْلَ
الْبَيْتِ وَيُطَهِّرَكُمْ تَطْهِيرًا
“O wives of the Prophet! You are not like any other women. If you keep your duty (to Allâh), then be not soft in speech, lest he in whose heart is a disease (of hypocrisy, or evil desire for adultery, etc.) should be moved with desire. Speak in an honorable manner. And stay in your houses, and do not display yourselves like that of the times of ignorance, and perform As-Salât (Iqamât¬as¬Salât), and give Zakât and obey Allâh and His Messenger. Allâh wishes only to remove Ar¬Rijs (evil deeds and sins, etc.) from you, O members of the family (of the Prophet), and to purify you with a thorough purification.” (Al-Ahzāb 33:32-33)
Ibn Kathīr said explaining these āyāt,“This is the ādāb (manners and etiquettes) that Allah ta’alā commanded the women of the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa ‘alaa Aalihi wa sallam) with so that they would be an example for the women of the Ummah to follow. [Tafsir ibn Katheer (arabic version 3/482)]
The previously mentioned principle of generality applies to this verse also. Indeed it is harām in Islām to imitate the people of Jahaliyyah. Allah here says,
“And stay in your houses, and do not display yourselves like that of the times of ignorance…”
So these commands are also for the believing women, who have fear of Allah and hope for his Mercy..
The Third Āyah 33:59
يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ قُل لِّأَزْوَاجِكَ وَبَنَاتِكَ وَنِسَاءِ الْـمُؤْمِنِينَ
يُدْنِينَ عَلَيْهِنَّ مِن جَلَابِيبِهِنَّ ذَلِكَ أَدْنَى أَن يُعْرَفْنَ فَلَا
يُؤْذَيْنَ وَكَانَ الله غَفُورًا رَّحِيمًا
O Prophet! Tell your wives and your daughters and the women of the believers to draw their Jalābīb all over their bodies. That will be better, that they should be known (as free respectable women) so as not to be annoyed. And Allâh is Ever Oft¬-Forgiving, Most Merciful. (Al-Ahzāb 33:59)
Allah ta’alā has commanded the pure wives of the Nabi (Sallalllahu ‘Alayhi wa Sallam), His virtuous daughters, and His noble women followers to cover their entire body. The apparent message of this Āyah is that there is no difference between the clothes of the wives of the Prophet (Sallalllahu ‘Alayhi wa Sallam), His daughters, and the believing women. This Āyah is a refutation to those who state that “covering the face is only for the wives of the Prophet Muhammad (Sallalllahu ‘Alayhi wa Sallam)!”
How is it that it is only for the wives of the Prophet Muhammad (Sallalllahu ‘Alayhi wa Sallam) when Allah ta’alā has ordered the Nabi’s daughters and the believing women of this Ummah to wear the exact same clothing as the Mother of the believers?
Allah ta’alā has commanded the pure wives of the Nabi (Sallalllahu ‘Alayhi wa Sallam), His virtuous daughters, and His noble women followers to cover their entire body.
What is Jilbāb and How is it Worn?
When we look to the Sunnah, statements of the Sahābah and tabi’een, we see that Jilbāb is the garment that is brought over the head of a woman and laid upon her face. The following narrations are proof for this definition:
حدثنا هشيم . قال : حدثنا الأعمش ، عن إبراهيم ، عن الأسود ، عن عائشة رضي الله
عنها قالت : « تُسدل المرأة جلبابها من فوق رأسها على وجهها »[/SIZE]
“Hushaym informed us saying, Al-’Amash informed us, from Ibrāhīm, from Al-Aswad, from ‘Aa’ishah (radhiyallahu ‘Anhā) that she said,
‘The woman is to bring down her Jilbāb from over her head and [then place itex" --> upon her face.’ ”
This is reported by Sa’eed ibn Mansoor. Al-Haafith ibn Hajr mentioned it in his Fat-hul Bāri 3/406. Ibn Al-Qayyim said in his Badā’I’ Al-Fawā’id: “Its chain is Sahīh upon the conditions of the two Shaykhs (Muslim and Bukhāri) .”
It is also reported by Abu Dāwood in Al-Masā’il from Imām Ahmad from Hushaym with the same chain. In that chain however, the word Al-Mara’ah (the woman) is replaced with “Al-Muhrimah” (the woman in the state of Ihrām). Both narrations are Sahīh.
Notice the statement of ‘Aa’ishah, “Al-Mara’ah” (the woman). This word is general and for all women! This shows us that ‘Aa’ishah, with her knowledge of the language and fiqh, knew that the Jilbāb was that which covered the entire body, including the face.
عن عائشة قالت : ” كان الركبان يمرون بنا ونحن مع رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم
محرمات فإذا حاذوا بنا سدلت إحدانا جلبابها من رأسها على وجهها فإذا جاوزونا كشفناه
رواه أبو داود ( 1833 ) وأحمد ( 24067 ) . وقال الشيخ الألباني في ” جلباب المرأة
المسلمة ” /107 : وسنده حسن في الشواهد .[/SIZE]
It was narrated that ‘Aa’ishah said:
“The riders used to pass by us when we were with the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) in ihrām (the sacred state one enters when going to hajj or ‘Umrah). When they came near, each of us would lower her Jilbāb from her head over her face, and when they passed by we would uncover (our faces).”
[Narrated by Abū Dāwūd, 1833; Ahmad, 24067. This chain is hasan due to supporting reports in meaning. This hadīth has also been narrated by Umm Salamah and Asmā' bint Abu Bakr by Al Hākim and he stated it was sahīh and Imam Adh-dhahabi agreed with Him.]
Major Points of Benefit of this hadīth are:
a) ‘Ai’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her), was obeying the command of Allah ta’ala in Surat Al-Ahzaab by wearing Jilbāb and bringing it over the head ‘Ala (upon) the face. This shows us how the Jilbāb is worn.
b) Some people state that what A’ishah (radhiya Allahu ‘Anhaa) did was wrong. That is because of the hadīth reported by Abdullah ibn ‘Umar in the Sahīh of Imām Al Bukhāri that states,
“It was narrated that ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: “A man stood up and said, ‘O Messenger of Allaah, what kind of clothes do you command us to wear during ihraam?’ The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: ‘Do not wear a shirt or pants or a turban or a burnous (hooded cloak). If one of you does not have any sandals then let him wear the khuffayn (leather slippers) and cut them so that they come below the ankle. Do not wear anything that has been dyed with saffron or turmeric. Women in ihrām should not wear niqaab or gloves.” [(Narrated by al-Bukhāri , the book of Hajj; Muslim, 1177).]
The response to this is very simple for the one who reflects. Niqaab is a separate piece of clothing attached to the Khimār. The Niqaab is a means of achieving the characteristics of the Jilbāb, but it is not the Jilbāb. This is a specific forbiddance of using the Niqaab. However, The Nabi (Sallalllahu ‘Alayhi wa Sallam) did not forbid the women from covering their faces with their Jilbābs. Hence, the women during the time of the Nabi (Sallalllahu ‘Alayhi wa Sallam) knew their faces were ‘awrah in front of ajānib men and would cover their faces in front of them.
Read the following fatwa by the Hanbali scholar Ibn ‘Uthaymīn:
“It is not narrated that the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa ‘alaa Aalihi wa sallam) forbade the woman in ihraam to cover her face; rather he forbade the niqaab only because it is worn on the face (i.e. Niqāb is the part that is separate from the garment and tied to the face, unlike that of covering the face with Jilbāb, as it it is part of the garment). He differentiated between the niqāb and covering the face. Based on this, if a woman in ihrām covers her face, we say there is nothing wrong with that, but it is better for her to uncover it so long as there are no non-mahram men around her, in which case she should cover her face from them.” [Al-Sharh al-Mumti’, 7/153]
c) The Nabi (Sallallahu ‘Alayhi wa Sallam - Peace & Blessings be upon him) was with them and He (Sallallahu ‘Alayhi wa Sallam - Peace & Blessings be upon him) approved of this noble action.
وعن عائشة : ” …… وكان صفوان بن المعطل السلمي ثم الذكواني من وراء الجيش فأصبح عند
منزلي فرأى سواد إنسان نائم فعرفني حين رآني وكان رآني قبل الحجاب فاستيقظت
باسترجاعه حين عرفني فخمرت وجهي بجلبابي ” .
رواه البخاري ( 3910 ) ومسلم ( 2770 ) .
It was narrated from ‘Aa’ishah that Safwaan ibn al-Mu’attal al-Sulami al Dhakwaani was lagging behind the army. She said, “He came to where I had stopped and saw the black shape of a person sleeping. He recognized me when he saw me, because he had seen me before Hijāb was enjoined. I woke up when I heard him saying ‘Inna Lillaahi wa inna ilayhi raaji’oon (verily to Allaah we belong and unto Him is our return),’ and I covered my face with my Jilbāb.” (Narrated by al-Bukhāri, kitāb al maghazi – bābu Hadīth ul ifk, 4141; Muslim, 2770)
The benefits of this hadīth are numerous; however we will just discuss those pertaining to Hijāb.
a) This hadīth took place with the issue of Ifk, where the Munaafiq (hypocrite), Abdullah ibn Ubai ibn Salool, slandered ‘Ai’shah and said that she committed Zinaa (fornication) with Safwān ibn Al Mu’attal. Allah (Subhānahu wa ta’alā - Perfect and exalted is He) revealed her innocence and exposed the Munaafiqeen and their lies against her noble honor (refer to 24:11).
Why would ‘Ai’shah mention that Safwan had seen her ‘before Hijāb was revealed’? Why would she mention that she covered her face with her Jilbāb? The reasons are obvious! Covering the face is a sign of chastity and honor. So by her doing just that, she was making it known to the people that she did not go with Safwan, except dressed as Allah (Subhaanahu wa ta’alā - Perfect and exalted is He) had commanded her. Furthermore it was to show that the only reason why Safwan knew that it was ‘A’ishah was due to the fact that he had seen her BEFORE Hijāb was revealed.
b) This noble action of ‘A’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her), shows us that the Jilbāb is that which covers the face, hence defining the objective of Jilbāb. The reader should remember that the command for Jilbāb is not just for the wives of the Messenger, but also for his daughters and the believing women. Thus A’ishah is proving to us how Jilbāb should be worn.
c) This also shows that any hadīth which mentions the showing of the face of a woman is abrogated. The fact that ‘A’ishah mentioned the Revealing of Hijāb and then her action of covering herself according to that revelation, is proof for this.
[SIZE=3]: The Hadīth of Hafsah bint Sireen[/SIZE].
[SIZE=3]وعن عاصم الأحول قال : كنا ندخل على حفصة بنت سيرين وقد جعلت الجلباب هكذا : وتنقبت
به ، فنقول لها : رَحِمَكِ الله قال الله تعالى : ( وَالْقَوَاعِدُ مِنَ النِّسَاءِ
اللاَّتِي لاَ يَرْجُونَ نِكَاحاً فَلَيْسَ عَلَيْهِنَّ جُنَاحٌ أَن يَضَعْنَ
ثِيَابَهُنَّ غَيْرَ مُتَبَرِّجَاتٍ بِزِينَةٍ ) ، قال : فتقول لنا : أي شئ بعد ذلك
؟ فنقول : ( وَأَن يَسْتَعْفِفْنَ خَيْرٌ لَهُنَّ ) فتقول : هو إثبات الجلباب. رواه
البيهقي ( 7 / 93 ( [/SIZE]
It was narrated that ‘Aasim al-Ahwal said: We used to enter upon Hafsah bint Sirīn who had put her Jilbāb thus and covered her face with it, and we would say to her: May Allah have mercy on you. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “And as for women past childbearing who do not expect wedlock, it is no sin on them if they discard their (outer) clothing in such a way as not to show their adornment” [al-Noor 24:60]. And she would say to us: What comes after that (of the āyah)? We would say: “But to refrain (i.e. not to discard their outer clothing) is better for them”. And so she said: [Referring to, 'But to refrain is better for them'], “It is to keep the Jilbāb.” [Narrated by al-Bayhaqi, 7/93. It is Authentic]
So Hafsah bint Sireen, the companion of Aa’ishah, covered her face by wearing the Jilbāb, even though as an old woman she did not have too. This narration is proof that Jilbāb is the garment that covers the woman’s face.
[SIZE=3]Proof 5[/SIZE]: [SIZE=3]The Tafsīr of Abdullah Ibn ‘Abbās[/SIZE]
[SIZE=3]حدثنـي علـيّ, قال: حدثنا أبو صالـح, قال: ثنـي معاوية, عن علـيّ, عن ابن عبـاس,
قوله: يا أيّها النّبِـيّ قُلْ لأَزْوَاجِكَ وَبَناتِكَ وَنِساءِ الـمُؤْمِنِـينَ
يُدْنِـينَ عَلَـيْهِنّ مِنْ جَلابِـيبِهِنّ أمر الله نساء الـمؤمنـين إذا خرجن من
بـيوتهنّ فـي حاجة أن يغطين وجوههنّ من فوق رؤوسهنّ بـالـجلابـيب, ويبدين عينا
From Ibn ‘Abbās who said regarding this āyah,
“Allah commanded the believing women, when going out of their homes for some need, to cover their faces from above their heads with their Jilbābs, leaving one eye to see the path.”
[Tafsīr At-Tabari: It is at least Hasan.]
Some criticize this hadīth for being weak because of the disconnection between Ali ibn Abi Talhah and Abdullah Ibn ‘Abbās. The fact is they never met, however, Ali ibn Abi Talhah was a student of Ibn ‘Abbās’s major student, Mujāhid ibn Jabr.
Imām Al Mizzī says in his Tahthīb Al Kamāl regarding the Tafsīr from Ali ibn Abi Talhah from Ibn ‘Abbās:
“It is mursal, and between them is Mujaahid ibn Jabr.”
In fact this Tafsīr goes through Mu’awiyah ibn Sālih from Ali from Ibn ‘Abbās. Regarding this chain Imām Adh-Dhahabi said,
“I say: Mu’awiyah ibn Sālih reported from him (Ali ibn Abi Talhah) from Ibn ‘Abbās a great and delightful Tafsīr.” [Mīzān Al 'Itidāl 3/134 no. 5870]
Those who accepted these narrations from the Mufassireen (those who give Tafsīr - exegesis) are:
The Allamah (scholar) of Shām (Syria) Muhammad Jamāl Ad-Dīn Al-Qāsimi in his Mahāsin At-Ta’wīl, Imām Al Qurtubi in his Tafsīr , Ibn Kathīr in His Tafsīr , Imām ibn Jarīr At-Tabarī, and many others.
So the scholars of hadīth have accepted these narrations from Ali ibn Abi Talhah because the one between Ali and Abdullah Ibn ‘Abbās is known, and he is trustworthy. All of the men in this hadīth are acceptable. In fact, Imām Al-Bukhāri accepted Ali ibn Abi Talhah’s reports from Ibn ‘Abbās in his Sahīh. This hadīth is authentic and has been accepted by the scholars of hadīth such as Imām Adh-Dhahabee, Ibn Kathīr, Ibn Taymiyyah, Ibn Jareer At-Tabarī and many others.
Proof 6[/SIZE]: [SIZE=3]The Tafsīr of ‘Abīdah As-Salmāni[/SIZE]
Under the Tafsīr of this āyah throughout the books of tafasīr you find the following authentic narration,
Hishām informed us, from Ibn Sireen who said: “I asked (as to what it meant) ‘Abīdah (as Salmaani) about the statement of Allah: “O Prophet! Tell your wives and your daughters and the women of the believers to draw their Jalābīb all over their bodies…” So he took his thowb (garment) and covered his head and his face, and he left exposed one of his eyes. [Tafsīr of Imām Tabari under āyah 33 and it is Sahīh]
‘Abīdah As-Salmāni (radhiyallahu ‘Anhu) accepted Islām before the Nabi (Sallalllahu ‘Alayhi wa Sallam) died, however he did not meet him. He is then considered a tābi’ee. He was from the companions of Imām ‘Ali ibn Abi Tālib (alayhis Salām) and Abdullah ibn Mas’ood (Radhiya Allahu ‘Anhu). He was considered from amongst the Fuqahā’ (jurists) from the students of Ibn Mas’ūd (Radhiya Allāhu ‘Anhu). [See Tahthīb At-Tahthīb]
In this chain, reporting from ‘Abīdah is the great Tābi”ee Muhammad ibn Sīrīn. He is the Jurist, Scholar of Hadīth, Muhammad ibn Sīrīn who heard from Sahābah such as Anas ibn Maalik, Abdullah ibn ‘Umar, Abu Hurayrah, ‘Imrān ibn Husayn (as stated by Imām Ahmad), Zayd ibn Thābit and others. Ibn Sa’ad stated about him that he had a lot of knowledge and fiqh (understanding of the religion). So this is the first major Tābi’ī to bear witness to this fact that Jilbāb is a garment that used to cover the face.
This narration is a strong proof that these two great students of the Sahābah, saw their masters, the Sahābah implementing this āyah in this way. Hence, it is a strong proof that the face is covered by the Jilbāb.
Indeed there is another chain that goes through ‘Abīdah and his students. Ibn Jarīr At-Tabarī reports in his Tafsīr the following incident,
ي[SIZE=3]عقوب ، قال : حدثنا ابن عُلَية ، عن ابن عون ، عن محمد ، عن عبيدة في قوله تعالى :
﴿ يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ قُل لِّأَزْوَاجِكَ وَبَنَاتِكَ وَنِسَاءِ
الْـمُؤْمِنِينَ يُدْنِينَ عَلَيْهِنَّ مِن جَلَابِيبِهِنَّ ﴾ [ الأحزاب : 5 ]
فَلَبسَها عندنا ابن عون ، قال : وَلبسها عندنا محمد ، قال محمد : ولَبِسها عندي
عَبيدة ، قال ابن عون : فتقنَّعَ بردائه فغطّى أنفه وعينه اليسرى ، وأخرج عينه
اليمنى ، وأدنى رداءه من فوق حتى جعله قريبًا من حاجبه ، أو على الحاجب[/SIZE]
Ya’qūb said, Ibn ‘Ulayyah informed us, from Ibn ‘Awn from Muhammad (ibn Sireen) from ‘Abīdah regarding Surat Al Ahzāb Āyah 59,”So Ibn ‘Awn covered in front us, and Muhammad covered in front us and he said, ‘And ‘Abīdah covered in front of me.’ Ibn ‘Awn said, ‘So he veiled himself with his ridaa’ covering his mouth and his left eye, leaving his right eye showing, then he drew his ridā’ from above making it close to his eyebrow, or upon his eyebrow.”
[The chain of this hadīth is Sahīh (authentic). See ibn Jarīr's Tafsīr of this āyah.]
So we have Ibn ‘Awn, Muhammad ibn Sīrīn, and ‘Abīdah As-Salmāni stating that the Jilbāb covers the face. This is supporting proof that the Jilbāb covers the face.
Other Benefits from the Āyah:
• Allah states the reason as to why they are to wear Jilbāb. It is to be known so as not to be annoyed. Meaning that they make themselves distinct from the prostitute or the slave, who do not wear Jilbāb, so as not to be harassed or looked at. Ibn Kathīr said when commenting on this part of the verse, “It is so they will be known that they are not slaves, or whores.” In other words, they are known as those free, believing women, noble and honorable. This is why Allah (Subhaanahu wa ta’alā - Perfect and exalted is He) mentions the wives and the daughters first then the women of the believers, as they are the noblest of women.
• Another beneficial point is that the Jilbāb should be large enough to cover the entire body of the woman. The following hadīth expresses how large the Jilbāb really is.
Umm ‘Atiyyah (radhiya Allahu ‘Anhā) said, “Oh Rasoolullah! Some of us do not have with them a Jilbāb. The Messenger of Allah said,
[SIZE=3]لتلبسها أختها من جلبابها[/SIZE]
“Let her sister cover her with her Jilbāb!” [Sahīh Muslim #890]
Imām Al Qurtubi when explaining the Jilbāb in his Tafsīr says,
“…And [Jilbāb] is the garment that is larger than the khimār. And it is reported by Ibn ‘Abbās and Ibn Mas’ood that it is Ar-Ridaa’ (refers to any dress, robe, or large clothing). And it is said that it is Al-Qinaa’ (a mask, veil etc). And what is correct (sahīh) is that it is a garment that is used to cover the entire body. And in Sahīh Muslim is the hadīth from Umm ‘Atiyyah…” [Refer to Ahkaam Al Qur'aan of Imām Al Qurtubi]
He then mentions the above hadīth we just quoted from Umm ‘Atiyyah.
Ibn Hazm Al-Andalusī stated,“…And Jilbāb, in the language of the ‘Arabs that Rasoolullah (Sallalllahu ‘Alayhi wa Sallam) spoke to us with, is what covers all of the body not just a part of it.” [Al-Muhalla 3/212]
• Another issue that we have not really covered regarding this āyah is the statement within that goes,
[SIZE=3]يُدْنِينَ عَلَيْهِنَّ مِن جَلَابِيبِهِنَّ
“…to draw their Jilbābs all over their bodies…”
The great Mufassir (exegete) and Imām Al-Ālūsī stated,
“And the apparent, as to what is intended by the statement ‘Idnaa’ (to draw)’ means to put it upon every part of the body.” [See Rooh Al-Ma'āni]
The point here is that the Jilbāb is a garment that is large enough to cover two women, covering all of the body, and loose enough to not see the shape of the woman’s body.
[SIZE=3ex" -->وَالْقَوَاعِدُ مِنَ النِّسَاءِ اللَّاتِـي لَا يَرْجُونَ نِكَاحًا فَلَيْسَ
عَلَيْهِنَّ جُنَاحٌ أَن يَضَعْنَ ثِيَابَهُنَّ غَيْرَ مُتَبَرِّجَاتٍ بِزِينَةٍ
وَأَن يَسْتَعْفِفْنَ خَيْرٌ لَّهُنَّ وَالله سَمِــيعٌ عَلِيمٌ
“And as for women past child-bearing who do not expect wed-lock, it is no sin on them if they discard their (outer) clothing in such a way as not to show their Zīnah (adornment). But to refrain (i.e. not to discard their outer clothing) is better for them. And Allâh is All-Hearer, All-Knower.” (An-Nur 24:60)
Allah has named a permissible exception. That is that women who have attained old age may uncover themselves, unlike women who have more beauty and are seeking to get married or able to have children. Ibn ‘Abbās (radhiya Allahu ‘Anhu) stated that the “clothing (thiyāb)” that they are to discard is the Jilbāb. [See Tafsīr Al Qurtubi and others]. However, Allah (Subhaanahu wa ta’alā - Perfect and exalted is He) has clearly stated that they must refrain from committing Tabbarruj (want-on) display of their ‘awrah.
Imām At-Tabari states that tabarruj is for a woman to display her charms and beauty. [Refer to Tafsīr At-Tabari]
Imām Abdur-Rahmān As-Sa’dī said regarding the part of this āyah that states, “…it is no sin on them to discard their clothing in such a way as not to show their zīnah…”
‘Meaning: Their apparent garments. Like her Khimār and similar to that, as Allah ta’alā has said regarding the women, ‘and to draw their khumoor all over their juyubihinna’, so it is permissible to uncover their faces in the case of security from mahthoor (danger or harm) that may come from them, or may fall upon them.” [See Tafsīr Ibn As-Sa'dī 5/445]
A point to note from this tafsīr is that Sheikh Ibn As-Sa’dī is saying that the Khimār is the clothing that covers the face, and furthermore he is stating that the principle is that the woman must cover her face and that the exception is the elderly women. We mention this because some authors have stated that Imām Ibn As-Sa’adī has restricted the khimār to covering everything but the face. However, here he only mentions the khimār and then mentions the allowance of uncovering the face.
Even though it is permissible for them to uncover, what is preferred is that they cover the ‘awrah and they cover their entire body with their Jilbāb. This Āyah states another reason why women cover their entire bodies, and that is because of their natural adornment (face, bosoms etc). From this āyah it can be deduced that a woman covers her body to conceal her beauty, thus the logical question can be asked,
“What are the parts of the woman’s body that are beautiful?”
The obvious answer would be the face.
This āyah is proof that a woman who still has the ability to have children must cover her face. Recall the narration of Hafsah bint Sireen when she refrained from uncovering and stated that Jilbāb was the garment that covered the entire body.
Narrations from the Companions and Those Who Followed Them:
The following are some narrations from the salaf that have not been mentioned that support the stance that a woman’s entire body is ‘awrah in front of non-mahram men.
Supporting Proof 1: A Narration from Asmā’ bint Abi Bakr[/SIZE]
[SIZE=3]وعن أسماء بنت أبى بكر رضي الله عنهما قالت : كنا نُغطِّي وجوهنا من الرجال ،
وكنَّا نمتشط قبل ذلك في الإحرام . رواه ابن خزيمة ( 4 / 203 ) ، والحاكم ( 1 / 624
) وصححه ووافقه الذهبي . وصححه الألباني في كتاب جلباب المرأة المسلمة[/SIZE]
From Asmā’ bint Abi Bakr, (Radhiya Allahu ‘Anhā), that she said, “We used (i.e. during the time of the Prophet) to cover our faces from the men, and cut our hair before that in Ihrām (for Hajj).
This hadīth is narrated by Ibn Khuzaymah 4/203, and Al Hākim and he declared it Sahīh according to the conditions of the two Shaykhs Al Bukhāri and Muslim. Imam Adh-Dhahabi agreed with him.
“We used to cover our faces in front of men…” meaning we used to cover our faces in front of men who were non-mahram. This is proof that Asmā’ and the women who were other than the wives of the Prophet (Sallallahu ‘Alayhi wa Sallam – Peace & Blessings be upon him) would cover their faces.
[SIZE=3]Supporting Proof 2: The narration from Fātimah bint Mundhir from Asmā’[/SIZE]
[SIZE=3]عن هشام بن عروة عن فاطمة بنت المنذر أنها قالت : « كنا نُخمِّرُ وجوهنا ونحن
محرمات ، ونحن مع أسماء بنت أبي بكر الصديق »[/SIZE]
From Hishaam ibn ‘Urwah from Fātimah bint Al-Mundhir that she said,
“We would nukhammir (cover) our faces while we were Muhrimaat, and while doing that we would be with Asmā’ bint Abi Bakr As-Siddeeq.”
This hadīth is reported by Imām Maalik in his Muwatta’. In the Arabic edition it is on page 217. Its chain is Sahīh.
Interestingly enough, the word nukhammir comes from the root word khamr, which is also the same root word for khimār. All of these words refer to concealment and covering. Reflect oh noble reader upon the choice of words used by Fātimah bint Al-Munthir! This is proof that a woman must cover her face in front of non-mahram males.
[SIZE=3]Supporting Proof 3: The Statement of Ibn ‘Umar Analyzed
This proof comes from the previous discussion of Niqāb in Hajj[/SIZE].
The hadīth we mentioned is as follows,
[SIZE=3]عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُمَرَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا قَالَ قَامَ
رَجُلٌ فَقَالَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ مَاذَا تَأْمُرُنَا أَنْ نَلْبَسَ مِنْ
الثِّيَابِ فِي الْإِحْرَامِ فَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ
وَسَلَّمَ لَا تَلْبَسُوا الْقَمِيصَ وَلَا السَّرَاوِيلَاتِ وَلَا الْعَمَائِمَ
وَلَا الْبَرَانِسَ إِلَّا أَنْ يَكُونَ أَحَدٌ لَيْسَتْ لَهُ نَعْلَانِ
فَلْيَلْبَسْ الْخُفَّيْنِ وَلْيَقْطَعْ أَسْفَلَ مِنْ الْكَعْبَيْنِ وَلَا
تَلْبَسُوا شَيْئًا مَسَّهُ زَعْفَرَانٌ وَلَا الْوَرْسُ وَلَا تَنْتَقِبْ
الْمَرْأَةُ الْمُحْرِمَةُ وَلَا تَلْبَسْ الْقُفَّازَيْنِ[/SIZE]
It was narrated that ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar (Radhiya Allahu ‘Anhu) said: “A man stood up and said, ‘O Messenger of Allaah, what kind of clothes do you command us to wear during ihrām?’ The Prophet (Sallalllahu ‘Alayhi wa Sallam) said: ‘Do not wear a shirt or pants or a turban or a burnous (hooded cloak). If one of you does not have any sandals then let him wear the khuffayn (leather slippers) and cut them so that they come below the ankle. Do not wear anything that has been dyed with saffron or turmeric. Women in ihraam should not wear niqāb or gloves.”
(Narrated by al-Bukhāri , the book of Hajj; Muslim, 1177)
From this hadīth we learn that it was the natural practice of the women to wear niqaab in the lifetime of the Nabi (Sallalllahu ‘Alayhi wa Sallam).
Imām Ibn Taymiyyah said,
“…It is proven in As-Sahīh that the woman in ihrām is forbidden to wear the niqaab and gloves. This is what proves that the niqaab and gloves were known among women who were not in ihraam. This implies that they covered their faces and hands.” (Majmoo’ al-Fatāwa, 15/371-372)
Sheikh Abdul Qādir ibn Abdul Azīz said while discussing the hadīth: ‘…and women in Ihrām should not wear Niqaab or gloves…’
[SIZE=4]“And this hadīth indicated with its understanding - Mafhum Al-Mukhālafah - that the women in other than Ihrām is to wear the Niqāb and the gloves.” [Al Jāmi' Fi Talab Al-'Ilm Ash-Sharīf]
Supporting Proof 4: The Woman Who Wouldn’t Cover [/SIZE]
[SIZE=3]رواه ابن أبي خيثمة ، من طريق إسماعيل بن أبي خالد ، عن أمه قالت : « كنا ندخل على
أم المؤمنين يوم التروية ، فقلت لها : يا أم المؤمنين ، هنا امرأة تأبى أن تغطيَ
وجهها وهي محرمة ، فرفعت عائشة خمارها من صدرها فغطَّت به وجهها »[/SIZE]
Ibn Abi Khaythamah reports from the way of Ismaa’eel ibn Abi Khaalid from his mother that she said,
“We entered upon Umm Al-Mu’minīn on Yawm At-Tarwayah and we said to her, ‘Oh Mother of the Believers! Here is a woman who refuses to cover her face and she is a Muhrimah (in ihrām). So ‘Aa’ishah lifted her Khimār from her chest, and covered the woman’s face with it.”
This hadīth has been mentioned in At-Talkhees Al-Habeer of Ibn Hajr Al-’Asqalaani 2/272 or number 1083 in some prints. The chain of this hadīth is strong.
Notice here that she covered the woman’s face with her khimār. This is proof that the Sahabiyyat knew the khimār was meant to cover the face just as we stated previously. Furthermore, here is a woman who did not want to cover, so ‘Aa’ishah took it upon herself to cover the woman, as this would be changing an evil with her own hand. This is in compliance with the hadīth of the Nabi (Sallalllahu ‘Alayhi wa Sallam) when he said, “When you see a munkar (evil), change it with your hand…” In this hadīth is proof that you must cover your face in front of non-mahram men.
[SIZE=3]Supporting Proof 5: Covering the Feet and the use of the Intellect[/SIZE]
[SIZE=3]عن عبد الله بن عمر رضي الله عنه قال : قال رسول الله : « من جرَّ ثوبه خُيلَاء لم
ينظر الله إليه يوم القيامة ، فقالت أم سلمة : فكيف يصنَعْنَ النساءُ بذيولهن ؟ قال
: يُرخينَ شبرًا ، فقالت : إذًا تنكشف أقدامهن قال : فَيُرخينه ذراعًا لا يزِدْنَ
From Abdullah ibn ‘Umar who said, Rasoolullah (Sallalllahu ‘Alayhi wa Sallam) said, “Allah will not look at the one who drags their garment out of Khuyalaa‘ (arrogance or pride). Umm Salamah said, “So what are the women to do about their hemlines on their dresses?” He said, “Drop them down the distance of a hands span.” She then said, “That will expose the women’s feet.” So the Nabi (Sallalllahu ‘Alayhi wa Sallam) said, “So then let [the garment] fall down an arms span, [and] do not add anything to that.”
This hadīth has been reported by Imām At-Tirmithi in his Sunan after which he stated, “This hadīth is Hasan Sahīh.” It is also reported by Imām Ahmad ibn Hanbal in his Musnad 5/2 and 55, An-Nasaa’i 8/209, Abu ‘Awaanah 5/482, and Al-Bayhaqi 2/333. All of them have reported this by way of Ayyub from Naafi’ from Ibn ‘Umar. It is Sahīh!
Imām Al-Bayhaqi said after narrating this hadīth, “In this is proof that she must cover her feet.” , “The feet of a woman are ‘awrah.”
Also, in the Sunan of Abu Dāwūd from Umm Salamah there is the following hadīth,
Umm Salamah asked the Prophet (Sallalllahu ‘Alayhi wa Sallam): “May a woman pray in a gown and a head covering without a waistcloth?”The Prophet (Sallalllahu ‘Alayhi wa Sallam) replied: “Yes, if the gown is long and covers her feet from the top.” [Sunan Abî Dâwûd - Abû Dâwûd comments: “Some have concluded that these words are actually the words of Umm Salamah.”]
The point here is that if women must cover their hair, arms, feet etc, then how is it that they would not cover their face in front of a non-mahram man? Isn’t the face more of an attraction than one’s feet or arms? Of course! We established previously that one of the reasons that Allah has legislated Hijāb is due to the beauty of a woman. Although this is not the only reason, it is one of them, based upon the fact that Allah gave the exception for older – less attractive women to uncover. So it is only logical, based upon all of these proofs, that a woman must cover her face in front of the non-mahram man, so that she will be known not to be bothered, so that she will not expose her adornment that will cause fitnah for the people, and so that she will be chaste and honourable. So by stating the feet are ‘awrah, we ask the simple question; how is it that the feet are more of a fitnah than the face?
We should state here that some women attempt to use the argument, “Well I am not attractive, hence I do not need to cover my entire body.”
Firstly, beauty is only a part of the reason why a woman covers her entire body, not the sole reason. So this argument is rejected. Allah has legislated Hijāb upon all women, except the elderly. He did not give the exception for “ugly women.”
Furthermore, Allah legislated the Hijāb so that women may be known as free women, not be bothered. It is also a symbol of modesty and honour.
Secondly, what one person may deem ugly, another may deem beautiful. Indeed, beauty is within the eye of the beholder! Allah has stated within the Qur’aan, “And I have created you in pairs.” So Allah has a mate for you, it is simply a matter of finding them.
The Prophet (Sallalllahu ‘Alayhi wa Sallam) said, [B] “Souls are like conscripted soldiers; those whom they recongnize, they get along with, and those who they do not recognize, they will not get along with.” [/B] [Reported by Al Bukhāri]
Hence, some people will naturally be attracted to others, while others will not be attracted to them. How many people do you know that may be considered physically ugly, are happily married? This should be an obvious response..
Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:
[SIZE=4]“Allah commands women to let the Jilbāb come down (over their faces) so that they will be known (as respectable women) and not be annoyed or disturbed. This evidence supports the first opinion. ‘Abīdah al-Salmāni and others stated that the women used to wear the Jilbāb coming down from the top of their heads in such a manner that nothing could be seen except their eyes, so that they could see where they were going [authors note: This narration is authentic and its chain can be found in the Tabari's Tafsīr of the āyah 33:59]. It was proven in As-Sahīh that the woman in ihraam is forbidden to wear the niqaab and gloves. This is what proves that the niqaab and gloves were known among women who were not in ihraam. This implies that they covered their faces and hands.”
(Majmoo’ al-Fataawa, 15/371-372).
The Hanbalī Jurist of his time, Imām Al-Hajjāwī and Imām Al-Bahūtī state in Kash-shāf Al-Qinā’ Sharh Matn Al Iqnā’ the following.
Note that anything in  are the words of Imām Al-Hajjāwī who is the author of Al-Iqnā’. The explanation of this book is done by Al-Bahūtī and his statements are not in brackets.
[Imām al-Hajjāwī states, “[and the free, mature, woman, all of her (body) is ‘awrah in Salāh, including her fingernails and her hair…]
Imām Al Bahūtī states after that,
“Due to the statement of the Nabi (Sallallahu ‘Alayhi wa Sallam),1. It is reported by At-Tirmithī who said, ‘Hasan Sahīh’. And from Umm Salamah that she asked the Nabi (Sallallahu ‘Alayhi wa Sallam), ‘Can a woman make Salāh in a dira’ and khimār without an Izār upon her? The Nabi (Sallallahu ‘Alayhi wa Sallam) said,2. It is reported by Abū Dāwūd, and Abdul-Haqq and other than him authenticated that it is mawqūf (i.e. it is actually the statement of Umm Salamah) up to Umm Salamah.
[Then Hajjāwī said:] […except her face] Imām Al-Bahūtī continues, “There is disagreement in the madh-hab (guild or school of law):
A) That it is permissible for a free woman to unveil her face in Salāh. It (i.e. this opinion) is mentioned in Al Mughnī and elsewhere. B) Her hands as well. This was the chosen opinion of Al-Majd (i.e. Majd-ad-dīn ibn Taymiyyah – the grandfather of the well-known ibn taymiyyah).
It was also the determined (opinion) in [the books] Al ‘Umdah and Al Wajīz due to the statement of Allāh ta’alā (the exalted) “And not to expose her adornment, except the apparent thereof…(surah Nūr:31)”.
Ibn ‘Abbās, and ‘Ā’ishah (Radhiya Allahu ‘Anhumā) said (regarding this verse), “[It means] Her face and her hands”.
It is reported by Imām Al Bayhaqī and in it is dha’f (weakness in the chain).
And they were contradicted by Ibn Mas’ūd (Radhiya Allahu ‘Anhu).Imām Hajjāwī continues, [And the two of them (wa humā)] Meaning the hands. [And her face] of the free mature woman [are ‘awrah when she leaves it] meaning when she leaves the Salāh. [With consideration to looking, like the remainder of her body] Due to what is preceded from where He (Sallallahu ‘Alayhi wa Sallam) said,3.
[Taken from Vol. 1 page 266 published by Maktabah An-Nasr Al-Hadīthah of Riyādh, Saudi ‘Arabia. The publishing date is unidentified, however, this copy that I have has been given as a gift to a prestigious University by the Library of Congress Public Law 480 program on 9/24/1970. Hence, this print is at least 36 years old. It also has the references and footnotes provided by the Azharian scholar and faqīh Hilāl Musaylīhī Mustafā Hilāl, the teacher of law and Tawhīd at Azhar Sharīf. It is printed in six volumes.]
The Imām of the Shāfi’ī’s, Imām Al-Juwaynī stated,“There is agreement (ittifāq) of the Muslimīn upon the forbiddance of women coming out (of their homes) with their faces unveiled.”
[Quoted in Tuhfat Al-Minhāj Bi-Sharh Al-Minhāj of Ibn Hajr Al-Haytamī, Vol. 7 page 193, published by Dār Al-Fikr. Also quoted by Imām An-Nawawī in his Rawdhat-Tālibīn. Also quoted by Imām Taqiyud-dīn Abū Bakr ibn Muhammad Al-Husaynī Ad-Dimashqī Ash-Shāfi’ī in his Kifāyatul Akhyār Vol. 2 page 42. This statement is also quoted from him in Imām Al-Khatīb Ash-Shirbinī’s Al-Mughnī Al-Muhtāj.]
We that this article has shown that many of the scholars, based upon clear proofs, believe the face of a woman to be ‘awrah in front if the ajnabī..
nisai almumineena yudneena AAalayhinna min jalabeebihinna thalika adna an yuAArafna fala yuthayna wakana Allahu ghafooran raheeman
59. O profeet! Zeg aan uw vrouwen en uw dochters en de vrouwen der gelovigen dat zij de jalabeebihinna dragen . Dit is beter, opdat zij mogen worden onderscheiden en niet lastig worden gevallen. En Allah is Vergevensgezind, Genadevol.
Enkele duidelijke ahadith:
Sahih Al-Bukhari Volume 6, Book 60, Hadith # 282 Narrated Safiya bint Shaiba (Radhiallaahu anha) Aaishah (Radhiallaahu anha) used to say: When (the Verse): They should draw their veils over their necks and bosoms, was revealed, (the ladies) cut their waist sheets at the edges and covered their faces with the cut pieces.
Sahih Al-Bukhari Volume 1, Book 8, Hadith # 368 Narrated Aaishah (Radhiallaahu anha) Rasulullah (Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam) used to offer the Fajr prayer and some believing women covered with their veiling sheets used to attend the Fajr prayer with him and then they would return to their homes unrecognized .
Sahih Al-Bukhari Volume 1, Book 4, Hadith # 148 Narrated Aaishah (Radhiallaahu anha): The wives of Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam) used to go to Al-Manasi, a vast open place (near Baqia at Madinah) to answer the call of nature at night. Umar used to say to the Prophet Let your wives be veiled, but Rasulullah (Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam) did not do so. One night Sauda bint Zama the wife of the Prophet went out at Isha time and she was a tall lady. Umar addressed her and said, I have recognized you, O Sauda. He said so, as he desired eagerly that the verses of Al-Hijab (the observing of veils by the Muslim women) may be revealed. So Allah revealed the verses of Al-Hijab (A complete body cover excluding the eyes).
Tirmidhi with a SAHIH chain reports...
Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam) said: All of a woman is awrah.
Abu Dawud Book 14, Hadith # 2482 Narrated Thabit ibn Qays (Radhiallaahu anhu): A woman called Umm Khallad came to the Prophet (Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam) while she was veiled. She was searching for her son who had been killed (in the battle) Some of the Companions of the Prophet (Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam) said to her: You have come here asking for your son while veiling your face? She said: If I am afflicted with the loss of my son, I shall not suffer the loss of my modesty. Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam) said: You will get the reward of two martyrs for your son. She asked: Why is that so, oh Prophet of Allah? He replied: Because the people of the Book have killed him.
Abu Dawud Book 32, Hadith # 4090 Narrated Umm Salamah, Ummul Muminin (Radhiallaahu anha): When the verse That they should cast their outer garments over their persons was revealed, the women of Ansar came out as if they had crows over their heads by wearing outer garments.
Abu Dawud Book 32, Hadith # 4091Narrated Aaishah, Ummul Muminin (Radhiallaahu anha) May Allah have mercy on the early immigrant women. When the verse That they should draw their veils over their bosoms was revealed, they tore their thick outer garments and made veils from them. Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalanee, who is known as Ameer Al-Mumineen in the field of Hadith, said that the phrase, covered themselves, in the above Hadith means that they covered their faces. [Fath Al-Bari].
Imam Maliks MUWATTA Book 20 Hadith # 20.5.16 Yahya related to me from Malik from Hisham ibn Urwa that Fatima bint al-Mundhir (Radhiallaahu anha) said, We used to veil our faces when we were in Ihram in the company of Asma bint Abi Bakr As-Siddiq (Radhiallaahu anha). This again proves that not only the wives of Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam) wore the Niqaab and that even though in Ihram women are not supposed to wear Niqaab but if men are there they still have to cover the face.
Abu Dawud Book 10, Hadith # 1829 Narrated Aaishah, Ummul Muminin: (Radhiallaahu anha) who said, The riders would pass us while we were with the Messenger of Allah (Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam). When they got close to us, we would draw our outer cloak from our heads over our faces. When they passed by, we would uncover our faces. Recorded by Ahmad, Abu Dawud and Ibn Maajah, Narrated Aaishah.
Sahih Al-Bukhari Volume 7, Book 72, Hadith # 715 Narrated Ikrimah (Radhiallaahu anhu) narrates Rifaa divorced his wife whereupon Abdur Rahman bin Az-Zubair Al-Qurazi married her. Aaishah said that the lady (came), wearing a green veil. It is a very long Hadith but the point is the women of sahabah wore the full veil.
Sahih Al-Bukhari Volume 1, Book 8, Hadith # 347 Narrated Um Atiya (Radhiallaahu anha) We were ordered (by Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam) to bring out our menstruating women and veiled women in the religious gatherings and invocation of Muslims on the two Eid festivals. These menstruating women were to keep away from their Musalla. A woman asked, O Allaahs Apostle What about one who does not have a veil (the veil is the complete cover with only one eye or two eyes showing)? He said, Let her share the veil of her companion.
Sahih Al-Bukhari Volume 8, Book 76, Hadith # 572 In the end of this very long Hadith it quotes Anas (Radhiallaahu anho) relates from Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam) and if one of the women of Paradise looked at the earth, she would fill the whole space between them (the earth and the heaven) with light, and would fill whatever is in between them, with perfume, and the veil of her face is better than the whole world and whatever is in it. This show that even the women of Jannah have veils and the word veil is what covers the face (niqaab).
Abu Dawud Book 33, Hadith # 4154, Agreed upon by Nasai:
Aaishah (Radhiallaahu anha) narrates that on one occasion a female Muslim wanted to give a letter to the Holy Prophet (Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam), the letter was delivered to the Holy Prophet (Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam) from behind a curtain.
Note: Quoted in the famous book Mishkaat. Here the Mufasereen of Hadith have explained that the Hadith where women came up to Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam) face to face were before the ayah And when you ask (his wives) for anything you want, ask them from behind a screen, that is purer for your hearts and for their hearts. (Surah AlxAhzab ayah # 53) And this hadith proves this order is for the whole Ummah not just for the wives of Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam)!
Abu Dawud Book 2, Hadith # 0641 Narrated Aaishah, Ummul Muminin (Radhiallaahu anha) Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam) said Allah does not accept the prayer of a woman who has reached puberty unless she wears a veil.
Sahih Al-Bukhari Volume 9, Book 89, Hadith # 293 Narrated Aaishah (Radhiallaahu anha) Utba bin Abi Waqqas said to his brother Sad bin Abi Waqqas, The son of the slave girl of Zama is from me, so take him into your custody. So in the year of Conquest of Makkah, Sad took him and said. (This is) my brothers son whom my brother has asked me to take into my custody. Abd bin Zama got up before him and said, (He is) my brother and the son of the slave girl of my father, and was born on my fathers bed. So they both submitted their case before Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam). Sad said, O Allaahs Apostle! This boy is the son of my brother and he entrusted him to me. Abd bin Zama said, This boy is my brother and the son of the slave girl of my father, and was born on the bed of my father. Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam) said, The boy is for you, O Abd bin Zama! Then Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam) further said, The child is for the owner of the bed, and the stone is for the adulterer, Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam) then said to Sauda bint Zama, Veil (screen) yourself before him, when he saw the childs resemblance to Utba. The boy did not see her again till he met Allah.
Note: This hadith proves Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam) did infact order the veil to be observed.
Sahih Al-Bukhari Volume 7, Book 65, Hadith # 375 Narrated Anas (Radhiallaahu anhu) I know (about) the Hijab (the order of veiling of women) more than anybody else. Ubai bin Kab used to ask me about it. Allaahs Apostle became the bridegroom of Zainab bint Jahsh whom he married at Madinah. After the sun had risen high in the sky, the Prophet invited the people to a meal. Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam) remained sitting and some people remained sitting with him after the other guests had left. Then Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam) got up and went away, and I too, followed him till he reached the door of Aaishahs room. Then he thought that the people must have left the place by then, so he returned and I also returned with him. Behold, the people were still sitting at their places. So he went back again for the second time, and I went along with him too. When we reached the door of Aaishahs room, he returned and I also returned with him to see that the people had left. Thereupon Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam) hung a curtain between me and him and the Verse regarding the order for (veiling of women) Hijab was revealed.
Abu Dawud Book 32, hadith # 4100 Narrated Umm Salamah, Ummul Muminin (Radhiallaahu anha): I was with Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam) while Maymunah was with him. Then Ibn Umm Maktum came. This happened when we were ordered to observe veil. Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam) said: Observe veil from him. We asked: oh Rasulullaah! is he not blind? He can neither see us nor recognize us. Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam) said: Are both of you blind? Do you not see him?
From the sahabah (Radhiallaahu anhuma) .......
Ibn Abbaas (Radhiallaahu anhu), who was one of the most knowledgeable companions of Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam), Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam) even made du'aa for him saying O Allah, make him acquire a deep understanding of the religion of Islam and instruct him in the meaning and interpretation of things.
Ibn Jarir (Rahimahullah) with an authentic chain of narrators has quoted Ibn Abbaas (Radhiallaahu anhu) opinion was that the Muslim women are ordered to cover their head and faces with outer garments except for one eye. (This is quoted in the Mariful Qur'an in the Tafsir of Surah Ahzaab ayah # 33, with reference of Ibn Jarir with a sahih chain of narrators). The Tabiee Ali Bin Abu Talha explained that this was the last opinion of Ibn Abbaas and the other opinions quoted from him were from before Surah Al-Ahzaab, Verse #59 and the order of the Jalabib.
Abdullah Ibn Masud (Radhiallaahu anhu) Who was known as the most knowledgeable Sahaabi in matters of Shareeah. He became Muslim when he was a young kid and ever since that he stayed with Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam) and gained the understanding of Qur'an from him. Umar Ibn Khattab (Radhiallaahu anhu) said about him By Allah, I dont know of any person who is more qualified in the matters dealing with the Qur'an than Abdullah Ibn Masud Explained, the word Jilbaab (as mentioned in the Qur'an Surah Ahzaab ayah # 59 ) means a cloak which covering the entire body including the head, face and hands. (Quoted from Ibn Taymiyyah in his book on fatwaas Page# 110 Vol # 2 ) Ayeshah (Radhiallaahu anha) Stated that in verse 30 and 31 of Surah An Noor What has been allowed to be shown is the hands, bangles and rings but the face must be covered.
Abu Ubaidah Salmani (Radhiallaahu anhu), an other well known Sahabi is quoted saying Jilbaab should fully cover the womens body, so that nothing appears but one eye with which she can see. (Tafsir Al-Qurtubi) And In the time of Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam) The women used to don their cloaks (Jilbaabs) over their heads in such a manner that only the eyes were revealed in order to see the road.
Ubaida bin Abu Sufyan bin al-Harith (Radhiallaahu anhu An Other well known and knowledgeable Companion of Rasulullaah) Imam Muhammad bin Sirin (Rahimahullah) One of the most knowledgeable tabieen) said When I asked Ubaida bin Sufyan bin al-Harith (Radhiallaahu Anhu) how the jalbaab was to be worn, he demonstrated it to me by pulling a sheet of cloth over his head to cover his entire body, leaving the left eye uncovered. This was also the explanation of the word Alaihinna in this verse (Commentary by Ibn Jarir and Ahkam-ul-Qur'an, Vol.3, p.457 )
From the Tabi een....
Hassan Al-Basri (Rahimahullah) States in his Tafsir of the Surah An-Nur, What a woman is allowed to show in this Ayah implies to those outer garments (not the face or hands) which the woman puts on to cover her internal decoration (her beauty).
Ibn Jarir (Rahimahullah) Quotes the opinion of Ibn Abbaas (Radhiallaahu anhu) Allah has enjoined upon all Muslim Women that when they go out of their homes under necessity, they should cover their faces by drawing a part of their outer garments over their heads. (Tafsir Ibn Jarir, VOL 22, pg.29)
The Tabiee, Qatadah (Rahimahullah) Stated that the Jilbab should be wrapped and fixed from above the forehead and made to cover the nose, (although the eyes are to show) and the chest and most of the face are to be covered.
The Tabiee Ali bin Abu Talha (Rahimahullah) Quotes from Ibn Abbaas (Radhiallaahu anhu) that he used to say it was allowed to show the hands and face when Surah Noor ayah #31 was revealed but after Surah Al-Ahzaab, Verse #59 with the word Jalabib was revealed then after this Ibn Abbaas (Radhiallaahu anhu) said that That the Muslim women are ordered to cover their head and faces with outer garments except for one eye. And this was also the opinion of Ibn Masud (Radhiallaahu anhu). (This is quoted by Ibn Taymiyyah in his book of fatwaa)
Imam Muhammad bin Sirin (Rahimahullah) One of the most knowledgeable tabieen) When I asked Ubaida bin Sufyan bin al-Harith (Radhiallaahu anhu Other well known and knowledgeable Companion of Rasulullaah) the meaning of this verse about Alaihinna and how the jalbaab was to be worn, he demonstrated it to me by pulling a sheet of cloth over his head to cover his entire body, leaving the left eye uncovered. This was also the explanation of the word Alaihinna in this verse (Commentary by Ibn Jarir and Ahkam-ul-Qur'an, Vol # 3, p.457)
From the Mufasireen of Quraan...
The Mufassir, Imam Al-Qurtubi (Rahimahullah),
Cites in his Tafsir of the Ayah on Jilbaab (Al-Ahzab 33:59), that the Jilbaab is: a cloth which covers the entire body... Ibn Abbaas (Radhiallaahu anhu) and Ubaidah As-Salmaani (Radhiallaahu anhu) said that it is to be fully wrapped around the womens body, so that nothing appears but one eye with which she can see. (Tafsir Al-Qurtubi Surah Al-Ahzab ayah # 59. This was also agreed upon by Imam Wahidi, Imam Neishapuri in the book of Tafsir of Qur'an Gharaib-ul-Qur'an and Ahkam-ul-Qur'an, Imam Razi, in his Tafsir of Surah Azhab in the book Tafsir-i-Kabir Imam Baidavi in his Tafsir of Qur'an Tafsir-i-Baidavi and by Abu Hayyan in Al-Bahr-ul-Muhit and by Ibn Sad Muhammad bin Kab Kuradhi and they have all described the use of jalbaab more or less in the SAME way as the two described by Ibn Abbas (Radhiallaahu anhu).)
Also from Imam Qurtubi (Rahimahullah)
in his Al-Jamia li Ahkaamul Qur'an states: All women are in effect covered by the terms of the verse which embraces the Sharaee principle that the whole of a woman is Awrah (to be concealed) her face, body and voice, as mentioned previously. It is not permissible to expose those parts except in the case of need, such as the giving of evidence¡x (Al-Jamia li Ahkaamul Qur'an)
At-Tabari and Ibn Al-Mundhir described the method of wearing the Jilbaab according to Ibn Abbaas (Radhiallaahu anhu) and Qataadah (Radhiallaahu anhu). The sheet should be wrapped around from the top, covering the forehead, then bringing one side of the sheet to cover the face below the eyes so that most of the face and the upper body is covered. This will leave both eyes uncovered (which is allowed in necessity) (Rul-ul-Maani, Vol 22, p.89)
Ibn Kathir (Rahimahullah) said...
Women must not display any part of their beauty and charms to strangers except what cannot possibly be concealed.
Shaykh-ul-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (Rahimahullah)
Relates that the correct opinion for the Hanbali and Malki madhaib is that is is wajib to cover everything except one or two eyes to see the way.
From the known and respected authentic ulamaa......
Ibn Al-Hazam (Rahimahullah)
In arabic language, the language of the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam), the word jilbaab (as mentioned in the Qur'an Surah Ahzaab ayah # 59) means the outer sheet which covers the entire body. A sheet smaller than that which would cover the entire body, cannot be categorized as jilbaab. (Al-Muhallah, Vol 3. Pg 217)
Ibn Al-Mandhur (Rahimahullah)
Jalabib is plural for Jilbaab. Jalbaab is actually the outer sheet/coverlet which a woman wraps around, on top of her garments to cover herself from head to toe. This covers the body entirely. (Lisan ul-Arab, VOL 1. Pg.273)
Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalanee (Rahimahullah)
A tradition reported on the authority of Aaishah (Radhiallaahu anha) says: A woman in a state of Ihram (during Hajj and Umrah) should stretch her head cloth over to her face to hide it. (In Fathul Bari, chapter on Hajj)
Shaykh-ul-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (Rahimahullah) relates:
Women used to room about without Cloaks (Jilbaabs) and men used to see their faces and hands, but when the verse stating O Prophet! Tell your wives and your daughters and the women of the believers to draw their cloaks over themselves. (Surah Al-Ahzaab,Verse #59) was reveled, then this was prohibited and women were ordered to wear the Jilbaab. Then Ibn Tayimiyyah goes on to say The word Jilbaab means a sheet which Ibn Masud (Radhiallaahu §¢nhu) explained as a cloak covering the entire body including the head, face and hands. Therefore, it is not permissible for the women to reveal the face and hands in public. (Ibn Taymiyyah's book on fatwaas Page# 110 Vol # 2 also in the book Hijaab Page # 15)
states This verse of Surah Ahzab shows that the young women when going out of their homes are ordered to cover their faces from strangers (non-mahram men), and cover herself up in such a manner that may express modesty and chastity, so that people with evil intentions might not cherish hopes from her. (Ahkum Al-Qur'an, VOL. III, p.48)
Qazi Al-Baidavi (Rahimahullah)
to let down over them a part of their outer garments means that they should draw a part of their outer garment in front of their face and cover themselves (Tafsir-I-Baidawi, Vol 4, p.168)
Shaykh Ibn Al Hazm (Rahimahullah) writes: In the Arabic language of the Prophet, Jilbab is the outer sheet which covers the entire body. A piece of cloth which is too small to cover the entire body could not be called Jilbab. (Al Muhalla, vol. 3, p.217.)
The Tabiee, Qatadah (Rahimahullah), stated that the Jilbab should be wrapped and fixed from above the forehead and made to cover the nose, (although the eyes are to show) and the chest and most of the face are to be covered.
Jalabib, which is used in the verse is the plural of Jilbab. Jilbab, is actually the outer sheet or coverlet which a woman wraps around on top of her garments to cover herself from head to toe. It hides her body completely. Lisan ul Arab vol 1 p. 273. (The best explanation is that it is what we would today call a burqa or an abaya.)
Ibn Masood (Radhiallaahu anhu) explained Jilbab to be a cloak covering the entire body including the face and hands. (fatwaa Ibn Taymiyyah Page #110 Vol. #2)
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